We publish this long-term energy outlook at the start of 2021, after a year that has brought extraordinary challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent economic crisis caused unprecedented disruption in the energy landscape—and the path to recovery
At the same time, the world’s energy systems are going through rapid transitions that
are triggered by simultaneous shifts in technological development, regulations,
consumer preferences, and investor sentiments. Our Reference Case sheds light on these developments and provides a synthesis on how energy demand will evolve.